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Chapter 1 Identifications

government: made up of individuals and institutions, vehicle through which policies are made and the affairs of the state are conducted

politics: the process of how policy decisions get made; the study of "who gets what, when, and how"

Thomas Hobbes: wrote The Leviathan; believed humans were selfishly individualistic and constantly at war with one another, therefore people must surrender themselves to rulers in exchange for protection from their neighbors.

John Locke (s): wrote Second Treatise on Civil Government; used natural rights to support his social contract theory--the view tht the consent of the people is the only true basis of any sovereign's right to rule...individuals agree, through a contract, to form a government to protect their rights under natural law. By agreeing to be governed, individuals agree to abide by the decisions made by the majority vote in the resolution of disputes.

monarchy: the rule of one in the interest of all of his or her subjects

totalitarianism: ruler excerises unlimited power and individuals have no personal rights or liberties

oligarchy: participation in government is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement

democracy: gives power to the people either directly or through their elected representatives

social contract theory: the belief that people are free and equal by God-given right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed

direct democracy (e): a system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule; example: ancient Greece

indirect democracy (representative democracy): a system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf

republic: a government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy

political culture: commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate

personal liberty: key characteristic of U.S. democracy; intially meant freedom from government interference; today it includes demands for fredom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental discrimination

equality: reflects Americans' stress on the individual; "one person, one vote"--political equality

popular consent: the idea that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed

popular sovereignty: the right of the majority to govern themselves

civil society: society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engaged in an open debate about public policy

individualism: all individuals are deemed rational and fair; primary function of government is to enable the individual to achieve his or her highest level of development

baby boom (s): 76.8 million people born after WWII (1946-1964) ; now reaching retirement age, putting a strain on Social Security and Medicare systems

Generation X: liberatarian generation; 50 million born in the late 1960s through the mid 1970s; experiencd economic downturn in the late 1980s; believe political leaders ignore them and distrust the political process; believe capitalism can be used for social change

Generation Y: people born from 1977 to 1994; grown up in good times, optimistic about future; internet savvy and more globally focused

political ideology: the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals; the means by which the basic values held by a party, class, group or individual are articulated

conservative: one thought to believe that the government is best that governs the least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights; a defender of the status quo who, when change is necessary in tested institutions or practices, prefers that it comes slowly, in moderation

liberal: one considered to favor extensive governmental involvement in the economy and the provision of social services and to take an activist role in proctecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment; currently one who believes in more government action to meet individual needs, originally one who resisted government encroachments on individual liberties

libertarian: one who favors a free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties